Les auteurs veulent connaître les facteurs pouvant motiver les parents des familles à faible revenu à se trouver un emploi (travailler) ou à ne pas s'en trouver (ne pas travailler). Le modèle de motivation utilisé est présenté et explicité à l'aide d'un exemple. S'appuyant sur une revue de la littérature et des entrevues auprès d'informateurs-clés, les facteurs pouvant motiver les parents des familles à faible revenu à participer ou à ne pas participer à la main-d'oeuvre sont décrits et commentés. Finalement, les auteurs formulent une hypothèse sur la relation entre la motivation et le taux de participation à la main-d'oeuvre.
Motivation to Work of Parents of Low Income Families : Conceptual Framework
This study was undertaken in order to develop a conceptual framework useful in understanding the labor force participation of low income family parents. More precisely, the authors were interested in knowing the specific factors which influence the decision of low income family parents to enter or not the labor force.
First of all, the authors comment on the conceptual motivational model developed in this study. Derived from the Vroom's approach, the model is based on three basic concepts.
One of these, is the concept of expectancy which is defined as a momentary belief concerning the likelihood that a particular behaviour will be followed by a particular outcome.
The other one is the concept of valence which refers to affective orientations toward particular outcomes. In this connection, an outcome could be positively valued when a person prefers attaining it to not attaining it. On the other hand an outcome has a valence of zero when a person is indifferent to attaining or not attaining it, and it is negatively valent when he prefers not attaining it to attaining it.
Finally the third concept is the one of force. This concept is the result of combination between valences and expectancies. As pointed out by Vroom, there are many possible ways of combining valences and expectancies mathematically to yield these hypothetical forces. On the assumption that choices made by people are subjectively rational, we would predict the strength of forces to be a monotonically increasing function of the product of valences and expectancies.
Secondly, after an intensive review of the literature, the authors selected twenty specific indicators which could influence the decision of low income family parents to enter (or not) the labor force. The factors are as follows :
1- Autority on children.
2- Authority on family.
3- Influence on other people outside family.
4- Economical security (short term).
5- Economical security (long term).
6- Health security.
7- Self satisfaction.
9- Self actualization.
11- Social activities.
12- Children education.
13- Personal children education.
14- Social statutes.
16- Members family relationship.
18- Basic goods.
In a context of low income families, the authors formulate the following hypothesis : the stronger will be the motivation to work, the higher will be the labor force participation (mesured in number of hours desired in the last twelve months).