La gestion des ressources humaines n'est ni une science, ni un ensemble de techniques mais un art: l'art de mobiliser des individus à la réalisation d'un objectif commun. Pourtant, la grande majorité des activités reliés à la gestion des ressources humaines ne tiennent pas toujours compte de la nature et des caractéristiques des individus. L'objet de cet article est de proposer une typologie des styles de gestion qui remet en cause la façon traditionnelle d'aborder la gestion des personnes et la productivité organisationnelle.
This article proposes a typology of the management styles which bring to light traditional methods of personnel management and organizational productivity. Up to now, the majority of management Systems have been explored from the perspective of the ideal or perfect management prototype. This model doesn't exist. The exageration of the «rationalisation» causes us to loose sight of the human being as a whole. The fact is that each person acts in a manner that permits them to use their abilities and strenghts to the maximum in the pursuit of their objectives.
The identification of thèse strengths is a junction of two major components:
- the preference between «rational» and «intuitive» thinking as a method of environmental perception;
- the preference between «reflexion» and «action» as a method of environmental control.
The integration of these two components allows the identification of four styles of management:
1. the «specialist» who plans the achievement of concrete results based on his analysis;
2. the «organizer» who coordinates a multitude of operational activities based on his energy and a will-power;
3. the «strategist» who conciliates contradictory interests and succeeds in establishing a consensus based on his ability to influence others;
4. the «adviser» who brings forth innovative ideas taking into account the issues in a situation based on his ability to evaluate the situation.
The management styles concept is not to categorize individuals; it is more a schematization of the dynamic process of individuals and their reactions vis-à-vis the environment. Basically, each individual possesses the abilities of each of these styles with one dominating, giving him the maximum assurance and security.
The respect of this dominant style constitutes the most significant factor in the Personal development of the manager. Although the dominant style of an individual is fairly constant, this is not to say that the individual's development is static. According to their experiences and motivation, each one can master abilities in one or more styles.
In short, the individual's efficiency and productivity depend largely upon the respect and integration of their dominant style, and it must be the same at the organizational level.
To facilitate the managers development, many organizations offer training programs. Most of theses attempt to correct the manager's weaknesses while adopting desirable management behavior, so that the candidates perform better within the established System. Rather than pursuing the emphasis on the weaknesses, it appears to be more important to concentrate on their strengths, thereby optimizing the impact. Regarding the selection process, many organizations have opted for assessment centers. Others use more conventional methods (i.e. interviews, psychometric tests). However, common in these two approaches is the absence of an integrated vision and the dynamics of the candidates. Up to now, the manager has been seen as a collection of behavioral characteristics, whereas now he is seen as more complex, integrated and human. A new approach in evaluation techniques must focus on the behavioral inter-relations of each individual.
This is the same for the process of performance evaluation where the superior should be able to recognize the specifie contributions of each of his collaborators.
He can thereby identify with them the means to optimize the impact of their style in the goal of increasing the productivity of the unit.
As regards organizational development, human ressource managers should seek to distance themselves from traditional roles and advance their approaches by mobilizing the intelligence of each employee.
Between the standardization brought by collective agreements, and the human relations approach that puts the emphasis on individual development, there exists some approaches that assure the equilibrium between the organization (production) and the individual (self-realization). Certain organizations have offered their people a philosophy of management in which the client is the key element. This philosophy attempts to re-establish the link between the personal contribution of each employee and the result (goods or services) expected by the client.
It is curious that at a time when we talk about «robotisation», we must return to basics and consider how individuals think and act and how they are motivated. Above all, we must remember that each individual is different.