Accueil » 52-3 ( 1997) » Évolution de la pratique de la gestion des ressources humaines: une analyse de contenu d'annonces de presse (1975-1985-1995)

Évolution de la pratique de la gestion des ressources humaines: une analyse de contenu d'annonces de presse (1975-1985-1995)

Victor Haines et Michel Arcand

Résumé

Si, au niveau du discours, la gestion des ressources humaines semble avoir développé de nouvelles approches, qu'en est-il réellement dans la pratique ? Par l'entremise d'une analyse de contenu d'annonces de presse, cette étude retrace l'évolution de certaines dimensions de la pratique de la gestion des ressources humaines entre 1975 et 1995. Les résultats indiquent que la pratique a connu une évolution qui requiert de nouvelles exigences professionnelles.

Abstract

Judging by its rhetoric, human resources management would certainly appear to have developed new approaches. But is this also the case for its actual practices? This study uses a content analysis of newspaper advertisements to trace the evolution of a number of dimensions of human resources practices between 1975 and 1995.

The methodological approach employed in the study consists of a content analysis of newspaper advertisements for human resource management positions over a twenty-year period. Newspaper advertisements express organizations' needs in terms of both major job functions and qualifications required of candidates. Such advertisements therefore contain indications of the key job requirements in terms of functions and qualifications.

Advertisements for human resource management positions were gathered from the "Careers and Professions" section of every Saturday edition of a major French-language Canadian newspaper for the years 1975, 1985 and 1995.

The results show how human resource management has evolved over the period studied. Of particular note is the rise of training and occupational health and safety as human resources management activities. As regards general management activities, policy formulation and evaluation, quality of working life, performance improvement and total quality management have all gained in importance since 1975. Contrary to our initial expectations, little change has occurred in the level of educational attainment or the field of academie specialization required. However, the results indicate that there has been a significant increase in the length of work experience required of candidates for positions in human resource management. In addition, there has been an increase in the importance placed on work experience acquired in a specifie industry or in generalist functions in human resources. Other requirements that have grown in importance are knowledge of English, of computers and of new management approaches. Finally, there has been a considerable increase in the frequency with which requirements are couched in terms of personal qualities and capabilities.

Has the management of human resources been transformed over the past twenty years? Although our study does not offer a complete picture of the situation, we would still answer in the affirmative. Questions remain, however, concerning the impact of this transformation on the competencies of human resource professionals. Should existing university programs — still largely based on the acquisition of knowledge rather than the development of personal qualities and skills — be reformed?

Resumen

Si, al nivel del discurso, la gestion de los recursos humanos parece haber evolucionado con nuevos métodos, i Cual es la realidad en la practica ? Mediante un anàlisis de los contenidos de los anuncios de prensa, este estudio sigue la evoluciòn de ciertas dimensiones de la practica de la gestion de los recursos humanos entre 1975 y 1995. Los resultados indican que la practica a conocido una evoluciòn que requière de nuevas exigencias profesionales.