Accueil » 52-3 ( 1997) » Restructuration d'une direction de ressources humaines : le point de vue des acteurs

Restructuration d'une direction de ressources humaines : le point de vue des acteurs

Christiane Labelle et Thierry Wils

Résumé

Depuis quelques années, les services de ressources humaines font l'objet de vives critiques, et ce, dans un contexte de ressources de plus en plus rares. Une façon de contrer cette menace de l'environnement est de « faire les choses autrement » en se structurant différemment. Par exemple, il est possible de passer d'une structure par fonctions (avec des spécialistes) à une structure par équipes multidisciplinaires (avec des généralistes). Le but de cette étude est d'évaluer dans quelle mesure cette nouvelle forme de structuration — par équipes multidisciplinaires — d'une direction de ressources humaines (DRH) a un impact sur les acteurs touchés par cette réorganisation (gestionnaires et membres de la DRH). Inspirées principalement de l'approche de l'évaluation des DRH par les clients, deux enquêtes par questionnaires ont été réalisées dans une organisation du secteur public. A partir d'un échantillon de 138 individus (79 gestionnaires et 59 membres de la DRH), l'analyse statistique révèle que la restructuration est perçue plus positivement par les gestionnaires que par les membres de la DRH.

Abstract

Over the last few years, human resources departments have been subjected to some strong criticism, at the same time their staffs have shrunk. One way to counter this threat from the outside is to "do things differently" by restructuring. For instance, a structure based on functions (with specialists) could be replaced by a structure based on multidisciplinary teams (with generalists). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the extent to which the restructuring into multidisciplinary teams of an organization's human resources department (HRD) affect the people involved (line managers and HRD members). Inspired mainly by the multiple-constituency approach, two surveys were carried out in a public organization.

Based on a sample of 138 individuals (79 Une managers and 59 HRD members), statistical analysis shows that the restructuring was seen more positively by the Une managers than by the HRD members. Overall, the managers (the internal clients of this HRD) saw positive, although rather modest changes as a result of the reorganization. The positive changes that the clients perceived mainly concerned the quality of tools, the quality of operational services and client service. They also felt that their responsibility had increased following the reorganization. On the whole, only a small number of managers were dissatisfied with the reorganization (13/77 or 16.9%), while many felt satisfied (31/77 or 40.3%). Finally, 42.9% of the line managers (33/77) were neutral (neither satisfied nor dissatisfied).

On the other hand, the HRD employees were much less positive in their evaluation of the reorganization. Although they saw some positive changes (a greater effort devoted to keeping clients satisfied, consulting them, and discovering their particular needs), for the most part the changes they perceived were negative. There were difficulties related to the circulation of information within teams, to cooperation within the HRD and to the internal operation of the teams. However, where the reorganization left most to be desired was on the level of attitudes: greater dissatisfaction at work, a worsening atmosphere, greater uncertainty about roles and discomfort with the lack of recognition. Overall, a large number of HRD members were dissatisfied with the new structure (45/59 or 76.3 %), while only a few were satisfied (10/59 or 16.9%). In fact, the percentage of line managers who were dissatisfied was the same as the percentage of HRD members who were satisfied (namely, 16.9%). This provides a good illustration of how diametrically opposed the opinions of the two groups were.

These results indicate one of the difficulties of reorganizing HRDs on the basis of clients' evaluations. In particular, our analysis shows that reorganization fosters a feeling of unease and uncertainty about roles among some members of the HRD which might diminish the future effectiveness of the new structure. It is therefore preferable to spend more time considering the reasons for declining morale among the human resource professionals in this organization before concluding that the reorganization was a success. The paper concludes with a discussion of the limits of the case study as well as of new avenues of research.

Resumen

Desde hace algunos anos, los servicios de recursos humanos son sujetos de vivas criticas, y esto en un contexto de recursos humanos cada vez mas raros. Una forma de contornar esta amenaza del medio es de llevar a cabo las cosas de manera diferente reestructurando la forma como se trabaja. Como ejemplo, es posible pasar de una estructura por funciones (con especialistas) a una estructura por equipos multidiciplinarios (con generalistas). El fin de este estudio es de evaluar si esta nueva formula de reestructuraciòn, por equipos multidiciplinarios, de una direcciòn de recursos humanos (DRH), tiene un impacto sobre los actores que se ven afectados por esta reestructuraciòn (administradores y miembros de la DRH). Inspirados principalmente en las evaluaciones de las DRH hechas por los clientes, dos investigaciones por cuestionario se realizaron en una organizaciòn del sector publico. A partir de un muestreo de 138 individuos (79 administradores y 59 miembros de un DRH), el anàlisis estadìstico révéla que la reestructuraciòn fue recibida de manera positiva por parte de los administradores comparativamente a la recepciòn de los miembros de la DRH.