L'auteur définit et examine la notion de travail à temps partiel et en présente les différentes implications.
Part-time Employment: An Overview
Part-time employment has become a considerable phenomenon in the labour market in developed countries: 11 million in the USA, 9 million in the EEC and 1.3 million in Canada. And it is constantly growing.
Three definitions apply to the sort of works: half-time employment; part-time employment which may be more or less than half-time; occasional or temporary employment which is full-time but of short duration.
The groups mainly affected in developed countries are women, the handicap-ped, students and young people generally, as well as the aged. The first group, how-ever, is by far the largest comprising from 70% to 90% depending on the country concerned. The areas mainly affected are those of the public and para-public sectors, but the private sector can also be included although to a much lesser extent.
The rational behind part-time employment can be described as economic, social and egalitarian. In the first case, it permits a better use of available abilities. In the second, it permits a better integration of man in society and favours fuller development of personality. Finally, it permits better use of women's abilities, and makes it possible for the society to benefit from their participation.
There are several advantages in this type of employment: as concerns the employer, the employee, and particularly women. To take full advantage of it, nevertheless, a series of problems must be resolved: in the law, technical and organizational aspects, and in psychological attitudes.
The French experience can be useful in this regard, for both its strong and weak points. A complete solution, however may be found in the following: a clarification of the nature of part-time employment as a social objective; a clarification of its best spheres of application; the avoidance of the establishment of a System of second class labour.
Liaisons sociales: supplément au no 7850 du 91/78, 18-9-78 et au no 7814 du 19-7-78. HALLAIRE, Jean,Le travail à temps partiel, Bureau international du travail et dossier de presse 8-8-80. FAVARD, E.,« Pas de miracle avec le mi-temps », L'Expansion, décembre 1978.