Accueil » 40-1 ( 1985) » L'OIT et l'élimination de la discrimination dans l'emploi

L'OIT et l'élimination de la discrimination dans l'emploi

Claude Rossillion

Résumé

Cette étude analyse les différents aspects des conventions et recommandations adoptées par l'Organisation internationale du Travail en ce qui concerne l'élimination de la discrimination et la promotion de l'égalité des chances en matière d'emploi et de profession. La principale est la Convention no 111, de 1958, aujourd'hui ratifiée par 107pays; elle a été complétée par la suite par d'autres instruments concernant des causes de discrimination qui n'étaient pas pleinement couvertes par la convention no 111. L'étude montre les précisions qui ont été apportées à la définition de la discrimination et à la détermination des mesures à prendre pour son élimination dans l'action des organes de contrôle de l'application des conventions et dans le développement des activités pratiques de l'OIT.

Abstract

The elimination of discrimination and the promotion of equality of opportunity in employment today occupy an important place in the standards and programmes of action of the ILO. They reflect a growth of concern for fundamental human rights in the field of labour, a concern which was initially directed towards protection against abusive working conditions, the elimination of forced labour and guaranteeing trade union rights and collective bargaining. It was, in fact, with the Declaration of Philadelphia (1944) that the ILO first clearly indicated this new orientation. Subsequently, it has been put into effect through a number of Conventions and Recommendations adopted by the ILO, as well as through its various action programmes.

The broadest standards evoked are those of the Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention no. 111 and Recommendation no. 111, adopted in 1958. The impact of such measures is evident from many revealing signs of their influence based on public discussion, serious technical study and moral authority.

L'impact des conventions et recommandations internationales du travail, BIT, 1977. The number of ratifications, the effects — both dissuasive and corrective — of the monitoring Systems, and the reference instruments which the ILO standards and other publications constitute for employers' and workers' organizations, including the trade unions, are different aspects of this impact. The development of standards and activities on the basis of tripartite discussions and reciprocal verification among governments, employers and workers at the international level can certainly be regarded as a sound means, not only of expressing these requirements and demands, but also of helping to translate them in national situations.