Home » 54-1 ( 1999) » Les nouveaux modèles de qualification fondés sur la flexibilité : entre la professionnalisation et la taylorisation du travail

Les nouveaux modèles de qualification fondés sur la flexibilité : entre la professionnalisation et la taylorisation du travail

Annette Dubé et Daniel Mercure

Résumé

Cet article traite des transformations récentes des formes de qualification du travail. Il est le fruit d'une vaste enquête sur la dynamique des emplois dans le secteur manufacturier au Québec. Les auteurs analysent d'abord les modifications cruciales de la dynamique des entreprises. Ensuite, ils examinent les nouvelles qualifications exigées des travailleurs, à savoir les compétences nécessaires pour accomplir les tâches, ainsi que les principaux profils de qualification privilégiés par les employeurs en vue du recrutement. L'article met en relief l'émergence de trois modèles inédits de qualification, tous fondés sur la flexibilité, soit le modèle flexible de type professionnel-conceptuel, le modèle flexible de type taylorisé et le modèle flexible de type adroit-analytique.

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to identify new forms of job qualification. It is based on the results of a large-scale survey of job trends in Québec manufacturing. Two research questions underlie the study. Are Québec firms truly searching for flexibility? If so, what impact does this have on the qualifications required of workers?

To answer these questions, a questionnaire survey was conducted among four groups of Québec manufacturing firms. In order to determine whether firms are actually putting the principle of flexibility to use, we examined the recent development of five forms of flexibility, that is, financial, technical, organizational, numerical and functional. To identify emerging qualification models, our research was carried out in two stages: first, we attempted to identify changes in the skills that workers need in order to carry out their tasks; second, we sought to identify emerging trends in the skill profiles used by employers in their recruitment efforts, particularly the nature and relative importance of different profiles with regard to training, work experience and vocational and personal aptitudes.

Three new qualification models, all based on flexibility, are highlighted in this article: the occupational-conceptual flexible model, the Taylorist flexible model and the adroit-analytical flexible model. This study reveals that although employers are increasingly seeking functional flexibility, it does not necessarily follow that job fragmentation and decomposition among certain categories of workers are being abolished. In other words, the argument that Taylorist forms of work are being maintained or reinforced is not incompatible with the position that employers have developed new requirements with regard to work flexibility.

Resumen

Este articulo trata de las transformaciones recientes en la calificaciòn del trabajo. Es el fruto de un basto estudio sobre la dinàmica del los empleos en el sector de la manufactura en Québec. Los autores comienzan por analizar las modificaciones de la dinàmica de las companìas. Después, analizan las nuevas cualidades exigidas de los empleados, es decir las caracterìsticas necesarias para cumplir con el trabajo, asì que los principales profiles de calificaciòn privilegiados por los empleadores en el proceso de reclutamiento. El articulo pone en relieve el surgimiento de très modelos inéditos de calificaciòn, todos fundados en la flexibilidad, es decir el modelo flexible de tipo profesional — conceptual, el modelo flexible de tipo taylorisado y el modelo flexible de tipo de derecho — analìtico.