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Motivation au travail des familles à faible revenu : tentative de mesure

Bertrand Belzile et Viateur Larouche

Résumé

Dans cet article, les auteurs visent à rendre opérationnel le modèle de motivation retenu. L'approche utilisée pour obtenir une mesure de la motivation d'un groupe de parents (N — 31) de familles à faible revenu à se trouver un emploi (travailler) ou à ne pas s'en trouver {ne pas travailler) est explicitée. Échantillonnage, cueillette des données et instrument de mesure sont présentés. Finalement, les résultats sont décrits et les auteurs analysent la relation qui existe (pour ce groupe de parents) entre le taux de participation à la main-d'oeuvre et la motivation à y participer.

Abstract

Motivation and Work : Measure

Linked with a conceptual framework developed in a previous article, the authors test their operational model. More precisely, the purpose of this article is to measure the specific impact of twenty motivational factors upon the decision of the low income family parents to enter (or not) the labor force.

As pointed out in the first article, the motivational model is derived from the Vroom's motivational model.

The measurement of valence rests on the assumption that the valence of out-comes can be inferred from the choices that persons make among alternative courses of action. To perform that task, the paired comparison method was used. More precisely, the selected twenty items were paired and the subjects asked to select the one they prefer. This technique yielded specific valences for each one of the motivational factors.

How is the strength of expectancy to be measured ? What behavior can be taken as evidence that a person believes that the probability of an outcome following a response is 0, or .50 or 1.00 ? The approach used rests on the assumption that expectancies are reflected in verbal reports by individuals about the probability of outcomes when working or not. The subject were asked what would be the probabilities (0 to 100%) of a certain outcome following first the decision of entering the labor force and second the decision of not entering the labor force.

Multiplying the valence of an outcome with its probability of appearing if the subject enters the labor force and if the subject does not enter the labor force and making the difference between both results yielded the motivational sub-force for this factor.

Using a sample of 31 subjects (Montréal and Québec areas), the low income family parents were met by interviewers in order to fill the questionnaire.

Generally speaking those who have a high motivational force on these factors were also those who have a high labor force participation rate (number of hours worked during the last twelve months). Although, the correlation coefficient was higher (r = .46) for fathers than mothers (r = .21). These data support the initial hypothesis.